11월 5, 2017의 게시물 표시

Dartmouth Conference - The birth of artificial Intelligence(1956)

John McCarthy convinced Minsky, claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester to help him bring together U.S. researchers interested in automata theory, neural nets, and the study of intelligence.
They organized a two-month workshop at Dartmouth in the summer of 1956. The proposal states:
We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves. We think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer.
It is not my aim to …

Nathaniel Rochester

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Born January 14, 1919, Buffalo, N. Y; chief architect of IBM's first scientific computer and of the Prototype of its first commercial computer, and developer of symbolic assembly language programming.
Education: BS, MIT, 1941. Professional Experience: MIT Radiation Laboratory, 1941-1943; Sylvania Electric Products, 1943-1948; IBM: 1948-1992, engineering manager, 700 series, 1954-1959, director, Experimental Machine Research, 1959. Honors and Awards: fellow, IEEE. [At the time of the award the organization was the IRE.] 1958; IBM Fellow, 1967; Computer Pioneer Award, IEEE Computer Society, 1984. Rochester worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Laboratory from 1941 to 1943 and for Sylvania Electric Products until he joined IBM in 1948. After being chief architect of IBM's first scientific computer and of the prototype of its first commercial computer (IBM-701, Defense Calculator), and in 1953 having developed symbolic assembly language programming, in 1954 he was appointed eng…

Claude Elwood Shannon

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Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".[1][2] Shannon is noted for having founded information theory with a landmark paper, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, that he published in 1948. He is, perhaps, equally well known for founding digital circuit design theory in 1937, when—as a 21-year-old master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)—he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical, numerical relationship.[3] Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications.

Marbin Lee Minsky

Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach

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저자: Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig
  1.1.1 Turing Test approach Alan Turing(1950)
1.3. The History of Artificial Intelligence
1) The gestation of articial Intelligence(1943 ~ 1955)  

2) The birth of artificial intelligence (1956) 존 매카시(John McCarthy, 1927년 9월 4일 - 2011년 10월 24일)는 미국의 전산학자이자 인지과학자이다. 인공지능에 대한 연구 업적을 인정받아 1971년튜링상을 수상했다. 리스프 프로그래밍 언어를 설계 및 구현하였으며, 1956년에 다트머스 학회에서 처음으로 인공지능(Artificial Intelligence)이라는 용어를 창안했다 [자료출처 : 위키백과 ]
Dartmouth 학회 참가자 - Marvin Lee Minsky(1927. 8. 9. ~2016. 1.24.) 마빈 리 민스키는 인공지능(AI) 분야를 개척한 미국인 과학자이다. MIT의 인공지능 연구소의 공동 설립자이며, AI와 관련된 책들을 저술했다. 뉴욕에서 태어나 브롱크스 과학 고등학교를 나왔다. 매사추세츠 주의 필립스 아카데미를 다녔고, 1944년부터 1945년까지 미국 해군으로 복무했다. 1950년 하버드 대학교에서 수학 학사학위를 받고, 1954년프린스턴 대학교에서 수학 박사 학위를 받았다. 1958년부터 MIT 교수직으로 재직했다.
1953년에 공초점 레이저 주사 현미경에 관한 이론을 개발해 냈다.
1970년튜링상, 1990년일본국제상, 2001년 벤자민 플랭클린 메달을 비롯한 다양한 상을 수상했으며, 미국 국립 공학 학술원(National Academy of Engineering)과 국립 과학 학술원(National Academy of Sciences)의 회원이다.